An International Research Journal

Vol 25, No 4 & 5, April-May, 2016

AJP

SSN : 0971 - 3093

Vol 25, No 4 & 5, April-May, 2016

25th Anniversary Year of AJP-2016


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                              Vol. 25 No 4 & 5 (2016) 501-510


Resolution enhancement in digital holographic microscopy and tomography system


Balasubramani Vinoth, Yu-Chih Lin, Xin-Ji Lai, and Chau-Jern Cheng*
Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Technology,
National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 11677, Taiwan

Dedicated to Prof FTS Yu

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

In digital holographic microscopy (DHM) achieving phase sensitivity is signifcant, which plays a major role in deciding the accuracy of the system. Our study elucidates the achievement of axial sub-nanometer precision with improvement in net phase sensitivity by instantaneous use of phase reference and temporal averaging techniques in DHM. To enhance the spatial resolution we implemented a synthetic aperture (SA) DHM system. The use of spectrum normalization method in SA-DHM system has helped to increase the spatial resolution and the phase sensitivity of the system. We also demonstrated the 3D imaging method based on sectional imaging technique to measure the refractive index variation between the spliced end of single mode fber and the polarization maintaining fber with digital holographic microscopy and tomography system (DHMT).© Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Digital holographic microscopy (DHM), Spatial resolution, Phase sensitivity, Tomography system.

Resolution enhancement in digital holographic microscopy and tomography system.pdf
Balasubramani Vinoth, Yu-Chih Lin, Xin-Ji Lai, and Chau-Jern Cheng

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                  Vol. 25 No 4 & 5 (2016) 511-519


Recent advances in fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation based optical pattern recognition techniques


Paheding Sidike1, Vijayan K Asari1 and Mohammad S Alam2

1Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469 USA

2Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 USA

 

In real-time Optical Pattern Recognition (OPR), Fringe-adjusted Joint Transform Correlation (FJTC) has shown very promising performance compared to alternate JTCs. This paper provides a systematic review of the recent advances in the FJTC based OPR algorithms, including the classical FJTC, Phase-encoded FJTC (PFJTC), Shifted Phased-encoded FJTC (SPFJTC), and Logarithmic FJTC (LFJTC). We also evaluate their performance on the face recognition using three standard face recognition databases, namely the Yale face database, the extended Yale-Bdatabase and CMU-AMPdatabase. Test results show that the LFJTC provides superior performance compared to the state-of-the-art FJTC based OPR methods.

Key words: Optical Pattern Recognition (OPR), Fringe-adjusted Joint Transform Correlation (FJTC), Phase-encoded FJTC (PFJTC), Shifted Phased-encoded FJTC (SPFJTC), Logarithmic FJTC (LFJTC). © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                       Vol. 25 No 4 & 5 (2016) 533-554


Active and tunable near-infrared hyperbolic metamaterials


Joseph Smalley1, Conor T Riley2, Felipe Vallini1 , Donald J Sirbuly2, Zhaowei Liu1,Yeshaiahu Fainman1

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, UC San Diego
2Department of NanoEngineering, UC San Diego


Dedicated to Prof FTS Yu

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) are metal-dielectric composite materials that exhibit hyperbolic dispersion for electromagnetic waves. The extreme anisotropy and broadband optical density of states associated with hyperbolic dispersion enable enhanced spontaneous emission rates and nonlinear processes, as well as guiding of light below the diffraction limit. While promising for next-generation nanophotonic devices and circuits, the behavior of passive HMMs are limited by fixed properties and high dissipation rates. Therefore, HMMs with active components for tunable properties and loss-compensation have become a subject of intense research. In this review, we investigate active and tunable HMM in the near-infrared frequency regime. We review HMMs based on indium gallium arsenide phosphide (InGaAsP) multiple quantum wells (MQW), a gain material commonly used in lasers for communication systems, as well as HMMs based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO), a transition conducting oxide with synthesis-dependent properties. We also offer an outlook on circuit-level applications of active, near-infrared HMM. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Photonics, Metamaterials, Nanophotonic devices, Mulitple quantum wells (MQW)
1 Introduction
Photonics is the scientific and engineering discipline devoted to the generation, transmission, processing, and detection of light. Fueling photonics are fundamental questions rooted in human curiosity along with practical questions rooted in human wants and needs. Photonics combines classical electromagnetism and condensed matter physics, with engineering practices, enabling the global fiber-optic communication system, energy-efficient illumination, and devices for sensing disease and pollution. Increasingly, the interaction of light with materials at the nanoscale has become more accessible and better understood. Nanoscale photonics, or herein simply, nanophotonics, focuses on these interactions, and combines the tools of nanotechnology with the already interdisciplinary scope of photonics.
Moore’s Law  [1] describes the revolutionary process in which the characteristic length scale of transistors was reduced from over 10 μm to 5 nm, between the 1960s and today, resulting in the reduction of per-transistor price from 5 dollars to less than one billionth of one dollar  [2]. Guided by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, the information processing and storage capacity of human civilization has increased exponentially  [2,3]. Photonics undoubtedly helped enable the electronics revolution through photo-lithography machines with ever increasing resolution. However, because the ultimate speed limit of photons far exceeds that of electrons, there has also been a steady trend to reduce the characteristic length scale of photonic devices themselves  [4]. Traditionally, the dimensions of optical components, such as cavities and waveguides, have been limited to the order of the wavelength of operation. Nanophotonic devices have emerged, however, with sizes below the diffraction limit of light.

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Corresponding author :
e-mail:fainman@eng.ucsd.edu (Yeshaiahu Fainman)

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                        Vol. 25 No 4 & 5 (2016) 557-566


DMD gratings and its application in tunable fiber lasers


Fei-jun Song1 , Xiao Chen1, Feng Xiao2,and Kamal Alameh2

1 College of Science, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081, China

2 Electron Science Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, 6027, Australia

Dedicated to Prof FTS Yu

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Digital micromirror device (DMD), a kind of widely-used spatial light modulator is applied in tunable fiber lasers as wavelength selector. Based on the two-dimensional diffraction theory, the diffraction of DMD and its effect on properties of fiber laser parameters are analyzed in detail. The theoretical results show that the diffraction efficiency is strongly dependent upon the angle of incident light and the pixel spacing of DMD. Compared with the other models of DMDs, the 0.55-inch DMD grating is an approximate blazed state in our configuration, which makes most of the diffracted radiation concentrated into one order. It is therefore a better choice to improve the stability and reliability of tunable fiber laser systems. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: OCIS codes: 050.1950, 060.3510

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  7.   Woojin Shin, Bong-Ahn Yu, YeungLak Lee, Tae Jun Yu, Tae JoongEom, Young-Chul Noh, Jongmin Lee, and Do-KyeongKo, “Tunable Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on digital micro-mirror array”, Opt. Express, 14(12): 5356-5364 (2006)

  8.   Chen X, Wang Y Q, Huang K Z, Song F J, Chen G X, Sang X Z, Yan B B, Zhang Y, Xiao F, Alameh K, “Tunable polarization-maintaining single-mode fiber laser based on a MEMS processor, ” CLEO:2012 Laser science to photonic applications, JW2A.59, 2012

  9.   http://www.ti.com/analog/docs/memsmidmodlevel.tsp?sectionId=651&tabId=2447

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                        Vol. 25 No 4 & 5 (2016) 567-571


Testing Retina of Cataract Eye Using Speckle Pattern


Suganda Jutamulia1, Erning Wihardjo2 and Joewono Widjaja3

1University of Northern California, Rohnert Park, CA 94928, USA

2KridaWacana Christian University, Jakarta,11470, Indonesia

3Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 Thailand

Dedicated to Prof FTS Yu

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We are currently performing the theoretical study and developing the design of laser diode device for testing the retina of a cataract eye. The operation is based on the speckle generated on the retina by the cataract lens, when the cataract lens is illuminated with a coherent laser light. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Retina, Cataract lens,UV light, Speckles

References

  1.   Green D G, Testing the vision of cataract patients by means of laser-generated interference fringes, Science, 168,  (1970)1240-1242.

  2.   Jutamulia S, Gheen G, Diffraction pattern on retina for eye testing, Opt Eng,  34(1995)780-784.

  3.   Wikipedia, “Laser safety,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laser_safety (2016).

  4.   Jutamulia F Z, Laser module for acupuncture, Asian J Phys, 24(2015)237-242.

Testing Retina of Cataract Eye Using Speckle Pattern.pdf
Suganda Jutamulia, Erning Wihardjo and Joewono Widjaja

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                        Vol. 25 No 4 & 5 (2016) 573-581


Transport of intensity and phase during beam propagation


Partha P Banerjee

Department of Electro-Optics and Photonics, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469, USA

Dedicated to Prof FTS Yu

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Propagation of profiled beams are analyzed using the coupled equations involving the amplitude (or intensity) and phase which result from the underlying wave equation.  It is shown that the transport of intensity equation, which provides a convenient means of calculating the phase and is an alternative to conventional holography, is equivalent to one of these coupled equations, and is a restatement of the conservation of energy. Other applications of the equations describing the propagation of intensity and phase are also discussed. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

References

  1.   Banerjee P P, Poon T-C , Principles of Applied Optics, (CRC Press), 1991.

  2.   Banerjee P P, Korpel A, Lonngren K, Self-refraction of capillary-gravity waves, Phys of Fluids, 26(1983)2393-2398; doi.org/10.1063/1.864423

  3.   Korpel A, Banerjee P P, A heuristic guide to nonlinear dispersive wave equations and soliton type solutions, Proc IEEE, 72(1984)1109-1130.

  4.   Banerjee P P, Basunia M, 3D Imaging of amplitude objects embedded in phase objects using transport of intensity, Proc SPIE, 959(2015)959804-6.

  5.   Teague M, Deterministic phase retrieval: a Green’s function solution, J Opt Soc Am A, 73(1983)1434-1441.

  6.   Streibl N, Phase imaging by the transport equation of intensity, Opt Comm, 49(1984)6-10.

  7.   Memarzadeh S, Nehmetallah G, Banerjee P, Noninterferometric tomographic reconstruction of 3D static and dynamic phase and amplitude objects, Proc SPIE, 9117(2014)91170M-9.

  8.   Zou C, Chen V, Asundi A, Comparison of digital holography and transport of intensity for quantitative phase contrast imaging, in Fringe, W Osten, ed, (Springer), 2013, pp 137-142.

  9.   Schnars U, Juptner W, Digital Holography, (Springer), 2005.

10.   Nehmetallah G, Banerjee P P, Applications of digital and analog holography in three-dimensional imaging, Adv Opt Photon,  4(2012)472-553.

11.   http://www2.ph.ed.ac.uk/~wjh/teaching/mo/tutorials/scalar-solutions.pdf.

12.   Ghiglia D C, Romero L A, Robust two-dimensional weighted and unweighted phase unwrapping that uses fast transforms and iterative methods, J Opt Soc Am A, 11(1994) 107-117.

13.   Born M, Wolf E, Principles of Optics, 7th edn (Cambridge University Press).

14.   Goodman J, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd edn, (Publisher: W H Freeman), 2004.

15.   Laskin A, Laskin V, Beam shapes to generate uniform laser light sheet and linear laser spots, Proc SPIE, 8843 8843 OC (2013).

16.   Ye J, Lee K, Park I, Kwon J, Laser Beam Shaping Using Hollow Optical Fiber and Its Application in Laser Induced Thermal Printing, J Opt Soc Korea, 13(2009)146-151.

17.   Abdelaziez Y, Banerjee P P, Evans D R, Beam shaping using acousto-optic devices with feedback, Appl Opt, 44(2005)3473-3481.

18.   Akhmanov S, Sokhorukov A, Khokhlov R, Self-focusing and self-trapping of intense optical beams in a nonlinear medium, Sov Phys JETP, 23(1966)1025-1033.

19.   Roddier C, Roddier F, Wavefront reconstruction from defocused images and the testing of ground based optical telescopes, J Opt Soc Am A, 10(1993)2277-2287.

20.   Nugent K, Paganin D, Barty A, Phase determination of a radiation wave field, US Patent, 6885442 B1 (2005).

21.   Cheney W, Kincaid D, Numerical Mathematics and Computing, 7th edn (Brookes-Cole), 2012.

22.   Abeywickrema U, Banerjee P P, Banerjee N T, Holographic assessment of self-phase modulation and blooming in a thermal medium, Appl Opt, 54(2015)2857-2865.

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                        Vol. 25 No 4 & 5 (2016) 583-587


Thermo-optical property and frequency dispersion of lead barium niobate single crystal



Chunlai Li1, Ruyan Guo2*, and Amar S Bhalla2

1Shenzhen Mileseey Technology Co. LTD, Shenzhen, China 518000

2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

University of Texas at San Antonio, SanAntonio, Texas 78249, USA

Dedicated to Prof FTS Yu

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Frequency dependent thermo-optic coefficients of relaxor ferroelectric Pb1 – xBaxNb2O6, 1–x = 0.57 (PBN57) were measured at several optical wavelengths, 694nm, 633nm, 535nm, and 450nm. The thermo-optical coefficients are expressed in three terms describing relaxor-type diffusive phase transitions. The significance of the polarization term coming from the interaction among polar regions is discussed and confirmed, after comparing with the thermo-optic properties of PZN-0.12PT(0.88Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.12PbTiO3) normal-like ferroelectric crystal. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Thermo-optic coefficients,Nonliner optical devices, spontaneous polarization, Transverse dielectric permittivity, Electrooptic effect

References

  1.   Tsay Y F, Bendow B, Mitra S S, Theory of the temperature derivative of the refractive index in transparent crystals. Phys Rev B, 8(1973)2688-2696.

  2.   Ghosh G,Thermal optic coefficients of LiNbO3, LiIO3, and LiTaO3 nonlinear crystals, Opt Lett, 19(1994)1391-1393.

  3.   Zysset B, Biaggio I, Gunter P, Refractive indices of orthorhombic KNbO3. I. Dispersion and temperature dependence, J Opt Soc Am B, 9(1992)380-386.

  4.   Guo R, Bhalla A S, Cross L E, Electric field-induced orthogonal polarization switching in morphotropic phase boundary Pb0.57Ba0.43Nb2O6 (PBN57) single crystals, Appl Opt, 29(1990)904-906.

  5.   Li C, Guo R, Bhalla A S, Optical frequency dispersion near ferroelectric relaxor phase transition in Lead Barium Niobate crystal, Ferroelectrics, 339(2006)103-113.

  6.   Guo R, Bhalla A S, Randall C A, Chang Z P, Cross L E, Polarization mechanisms of morphotropic phase boundary Lead barium niobate (PBN) compositions. J Appl Phys, 67(1990)1453-1460.

  7.   Bhalla A S, Guo R, Cross L E, Burns G, Dacol F H, Neurgaonkar R R, Measurements of strain and the optical indices in the ferroelectric Ba0.4Sr0.6O6: Polarization effects, Phys Rev B, 36(1987)2030-2035.

  8.   Bhalla A S, Guo R, Cross L E, Burns G, Dacol F H, Neurgaonkar R R, Glassy polarization in the ferroelectric tungsten bronze (Ba, Sr) Nb2O6, J Appl Phys, 71(1992)5591-5595.

  9.   Tsukada S, Hidaka Y, Kojima S, Bokov A A, Ye Z-G, Development of nanoscale polarization fluctuations in relaxor-based (1–x)Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3–xPbTiO3 ferroelectrics studied by Brillouin scattering, Phys Rev B, 87(2013) 014101;doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.87.014101

10.  Yao X, Chen Z, Cross L E, Polarization and depolarization behavior of hot pressed lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics. J Appl Phys, 54(1983)3399-3403.

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                               Vol. 25 No 4 & 5 (2016) 589-598


Visualization and quantification of light sources spectra with a simple cell phone based spectroscopic system


Rocío Espinosa-Gutierrez1, Ignacio Moreno1,*, Pascuala Garcia-Martinez2, Jenaro Guisasola3 and Jesús Carnicer4

1 Department of Materials Science, Optics and Electronics Technology, University Miguel Hernandez, 03202, Elche, Spain.

2 Department of Optics, University of Valencia, 45100, Burjassot, Spain.

3 Department of Applied Physics, University of Basque Country, 20014, San Sebastian, Spain.

4 Pedagogical Department, MUDIC-VBS-CV, 03300, Orihuela (Alicante), Spain.

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In this paper, we present the implementation of a simple and low cost optical spectroscopic system based on the use of a common cell phone camera. It is shown how it can be useful for developing both qualitative spectra visualizations, to but also quantitative measurements. Therefore, it can be useful for application in demonstrations in science museums, as well as for introductory courses of Physics. In addition, it is also useful  to measure wavelengths in a very simple manner.We show results with different gas-discharge lamps, lasers, LEDs or filament bulbs. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Total Refs: 19

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Cell-phone-based platform for biomedical device development and education applications,PLoS One 6(2011) 17150; doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017150
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